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A central part of the PIN project is a model of mediated communication that spans all forms of digital and analog media. The model was developed and published in 2011 i the journal New Media and Society.

The basic communication model underlying the PIN project

The model has subsequently been used to further refine the questions in the survey that serves as one of the empirical cornerstones in the PIN project. The most elaborate study based on the model compares media and internet use in nine European countries. The results were published in 2015 in a special issue of the International Journal of Communication. The baseline study develops a segmentation model of media users.

A comparative study of internet and media use in nine European countries

The implications for developing internet use studies was further explored in this article:

Implications of longitudinal studies of internet use

The PIN project is aligned with other research efforts, and takes inspiration from a wide range of sources. Key examples include writings by project partners and members of our scientific advisory board, such as James Webster (The Marketplace of Attention) and Philip Howard (on democracy and digital media).

We also look to other contributions to the international literature on comparative studies of digital media, such as Daniel Miller's project on social media.